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Learning and Behavior

Even though Turner syndrome (TS) can have various effects on the body and brain, 90% of people with TS have average or above intelligence. Some people experience common challenges and strengths, and this section may help you reach your full potential.

We hear you.

Learning and Behavior

Common Conditions  •  Common Challenges      Identifying Challenges   •   Care Recommendations   •   Resources

Missing some or all of the second X chromosome changes the brain's structure and how it processes information. This causes many individuals with TS to experience challenges with learning and controlling thoughts, emotions, and behavior.

This can negatively impact Education, Work, Relationships, Mental Health, and the Ability to Live Independently.

​If you have TS, you may recognize that you struggle with these challenges but you may not be sure if and how to get help. This can make you feel anxious, sad, isolated. It can also hurt your self-esteem. 


We hear you. You’re smart. Your brain just doesn’t work the same way as others, and this can come with strengths and weaknesses. Individuals with TS are very hardworking, resilient, passionate, and often have a way with words. Don’t let your challenges define your worth. 

If you are close to someone who has TS, you may also notice they’re struggling and feel frustrated because their hard work frequently doesn’t have the desired results. It can be hard to know if and how you should offer advice. Remember that their challenges are because of how their brain works.

Understanding Your Unique TS Brain


Helps you
understand your special strengths and


Helps your friends
and family understand
what you're
going through.


Helps your community
know when you need
help and how to
provide it.

Knowledge is Power.


American Psychiatric Association. (2022). Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed., text rev.).


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2022). Developmental Disabilities. CDC: Developmental Disabilities


“Difference between Disease, Syndrome, Disorder and Condition.” Retrieved January 4, 2023 from Disease/Syndrome/Disorder/Condition


Frolov, L., & Schaepper, M. A. (2021). What Is Specific Learning Disorder? American Psychiatric Association. Specific Learning Disorder


Lyons, H. (2021). How are Developmental Disorders Different than Mental Illnesses? Development Disorders/Mental Disorders


Sulkes, S. B. (2022a). Definition of Developmental Disorders. Merck Manual: Consumer Version. Developmental Disorders


Sulkes, S. B. (2022b). Learning Disorders. Merck Manual: Consumer Version. Learning Disorders

The NVLD Project. What is Nonverbal Learning Disability? 

The NVLD Project. For Clinicians and Scientists.

The NVLD Project. Frequently Asked Questions.

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