Eyes and Vision in Turner Syndrome


Several eye conditions are more common in TS, in both classic and mosaic than in the general population.


These include:

  • Nearsightedness, farsightedness, age-related vision issues, and astigmatism. These issues occur slightly more often than in the general population.

  • Strabismus (wandering or crossed eye) affects about one-third of those with TS. It usually becomes evident between 6 months and 7 years of age. If not treated promptly with special glasses or surgery, decreased vision will occur in the wandering eye(s) in 30-50% of those affected.

  • Amblyopia (“lazy eye” with decreased vision)

  • Ptosis (droopy upper eyelid)

  • Red/green color blindness or color vision abnormalities (8%)

  • Congenital glaucoma (increased pressure inside the eye starting at birth)

  • Cataracts in older women (more research needed)


Eyes and vision exams should be performed by a primary doctor as part of each physical exam and by an ophthalmologist beginning at age 2 and then as recommended.


Vision affects balance, driving, learning, and other necessary daily needs.  It’s important to determine the cause of changing vision as it could be a result of medications, or conditions like diabetes or high blood pressure. 


The Clinical Practice Care Guidelines for the Care of Women and Girls with Turner Syndrome recommendations to physicians:


  • We recommend a comprehensive ophthalmological examination between 12 and 18 months of age or at the time of diagnosis, if at an older age, with emphasis on early correction of refractive errors.

Help us learn more about eyes and vision in TS by joining the Turner Syndrome Research Registry, it's free and allows you to support TS research from home.

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